In France, an independent authority called the National Commission for Public Debate (Commission nationale du débat public) pushed for a law in 2002 requiring that any development project receiving a certain level of funding must devote a specific percentage of its construction funding to service design. This involves bringing related parties, whether civic or other groups, and other stakeholders into the process, and it would take at least a year to implement any innovation plan. That meant statutory budgets would come from development projects, and legal initiatives or projects that don’t involve development would not receive funding.

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